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part of singapore culture & design research project


The concept of San3 is inspired by the understanding of the classic text of LaoZi, particularly Chapter 42.


Dao gives birth to One 

One gives birth to Two 

Two give birth to Three 

Three give birth to ten-thousand things 

The ten-thousand things carry yin and embrace yang 

They mix these energies to enact harmony  


People dislike being poor, abandoned and alone 

Yet this is how kings and nobles consider themselves 

For by decreasing things we increase them 

And by increasing things we decrease them  


That which others teach I also teach 

One who forces things will not have a proper death 

I shall take this as the father of my teaching   

San3 is supported by Nanyang Technological University, Singapore and Ministry of Education, Singapore.

Research period: 2013-


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